Arshile Gorky Catalogue Raisonné
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Catalogue Entry

Photo: © The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston
Graphite pencil and crayon on laid paper
18 15/16 x 24 3/8 in. (48.1 x 61.9 cm)
Recto, in pencil, lower right: A. Gorky
Verso not inscribed
Sidney Janis Gallery, New York, Late Drawings by Gorky, September 28–October 24, 1959. (Exhibition catalogue: Sidney Janis Gallery 1959), no. 10, ill. in b/w, as "Drawing," dated c. 1945.
University Gallery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Gorky Drawings, October 27–December 2, 1960, as "Drawing".
Everett Ellin Gallery, Los Angeles, Arshile Gorky: Forty Drawings from the Period 1929 thru 1947, April 9–May 5, 1962, no. 32, ill. in b/w, as "Untitled," dated c. 1946.
M. Knoedler & Co. Inc, New York, Gorky: Drawings, November 25–December 27, 1969. (Exhibition catalogue: Jordan 1969), no. 130, ill. in b/w, p. 49; p. 61, as "Virginia—Summer".
Wilmington Society of Fine Arts, Delaware Art Center, Contemporary American Painting and Sculpture from New York Galleries, April 2–26, 1970.
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Arshile Gorky 1904–1948: A Retrospective, April 24–July 19, 1981, no. 233, ill. in b/w, p. 243, as "Virginia—Summer". Traveled to: Dallas Museum of Fine Arts, September 12–November 6, 1981; Los Angeles County Museum of Art, December 3, 1981–February 28, 1982.
Arnold Herstand & Company, New York, Surrealism: From Paris to New York, May 12–Summer 1990, ill. in color, as "Virginia—Summer".
Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, Texas Collects: Willem de Kooning and His Contemporaries, March 17–May 21, 1995.
Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth and Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo (organizers), Arshile Gorky: The Breakthrough Years, 1995–96, no. 41, ill. in color, p. 171, as "Virginia—Summer". Traveled to: National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., May 7–September 17, 1995; Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York, October 13–December 31, 1995; Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, Texas, January 13–March 17, 1996.
Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, Arshile Gorky: A Retrospective of Drawings, November 20, 2003–February 15, 2004, no. 126, ill. in color, p. 215; p. 245, as "Virginia—Summer". Traveled to: Menil Collection, Houston, March 5–May 9, 2004.
Fresno Art Museum and the Armenian Museum, California, Vosdanik Manouk Adoian a.k.a. Arshile Gorky, April 7–June 4, 2006, [not in catalogue].
Philadelphia Museum of Art, Arshile Gorky: A Retrospective, October 15, 2009–January 10, 2010. (Exhibition catalogue: Taylor 2009a), pl. 150, ill. in color, p. 311; p. 392, as "Virginia—Summer". Traveled to: Tate Modern, London, February 10–May 3, 2010 (Gale 2010); Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, June 6–September 20, 2010 (Gale 2010).
Barbara Mathes Gallery. Selections: Fall 1989. New York: Barbara Mathes Gallery, 1989, no. 23, ill. in color, as "Virginia—Summer".
Spender, Saskia and Edith Devaney. Ardent Nature: Arshile Gorky Landscapes, 1943–47. Zurich: Hauser & Wirth Publishers, 2017. Exhibition catalogue (2017 New York), ill. in color, p. 108; p. 139, as "Virginia—Summer".
Field, Parker. "Beyond The Limit." In Arshile Gorky: Beyond The Limit, edited by Jennifer Magee. Zurich: Hauser & Wirth Publishers, 2021. Exhibition catalogue, discussed p. 12; ill. in color, p. 31, as "Untitled (Virginia Summer)".
Karmel, Pepe. "The Blue Veil: Arshile Gorky's Untitled (Virginia Summer)." In Arshile Gorky: Beyond The Limit, edited by Jennifer Magee. Zurich: Hauser & Wirth Publishers, 2021. Exhibition catalogue, discussed pp. 18–19.
Watermark / Stamp: Michallet
Michallet paper with watermark, lower left: MICHALLET / FRANCE; lower right: UFPC [three flowers]

Verso, in pencil, lower left [not in artist's hand]: 5; A; upper right: 21; center right: #9; 18 x 24 inches [sideways]

The verso inscription information and marking are known from documentation provided by the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston.


The drawing was made during the summer of 1946 at Crooked Run Farm in Lincoln, Virginia—the country home of Gorky’s in-laws, the Magruders. Despite the fact that Gorky's body was weathering the effects of an unforeseen colostomy operation performed in March and the barn which he usually used as a studio had been razed by fire the previous autumn, the summer of 1946—spanning from mid-July to early November—proved his most productive spell yet. As Gorky reported to his younger sister Vartoosh (m. Mooradian; 1906–1991) shortly before returning to New York: "this summer I finished a lot of drawings, 292 of them. Never have I been able to do so much work, and they are good too."1 Of the prolific impulse to draw that feverishly occupied Gorky that summer, the "Virginia Summer" series is one such manifestation. The drawing's overall composition is closely related to several works by Gorky, including the posthumously titled painting Virginia Summer (see P397 and related work).

1. Letter from Arshile Gorky to Vartoosh Mooradian, November 17, 1939, Arshile Gorky/Mooradian Archive, Eastern Diocese of the Armenian Church of America, New York; Arshile Gorky to Vartoosh Mooradian, November 17, 1939, in Matthew Spender, ed., Arshile Gorky: The Plow and the Song: A Life in Letters and Documents, trans. Father Krikor Maksoudian (Zurich: Hauser & Wirth Publishers, 2018), 406.

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